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Research relating to mindfulness at work

On this page you will find a list of research which specifically focusses on the workplace applications of mindfulness at work.  This research list will be added to on a regular basis, so please book mark this page and check back regularly.

Overview of research to date

Volume and quality of research

In June 2016 100 workplace specific mindfulness research papers had been published.

Of these studies 32 are Randomises Control Trials (RCT) - considered the gold standard of research studies. 

7 studies are Meta-analysis.  The papers include studies on employees, supervisors manages and leaders.

Employment sectors

Employment sectors included in the studies included the Armed forces, Architects, Call centre staff, Catering and hospitality, consultancy, Education, (teachers & university staff, Emergency services, Financial / Insurance staff, Government organisations, Healthcare (Doctors, Nurses, healthcare workers), High Tech, HR, Judiciary, Manufacturing, Sales, Social work, Transport, Telecoms, Utilities. 

The highest number of studies (24 in total) involved Healthcare staff (doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals).  The second highest imvolved those working in education (a total of 10 studies). 

The link between mindfulness and desirable workplace outcomes

Research contributes to the evidence base of how mindfulness can help:

  • 58 studies link mindfulness to factors that improve employee wellbeing
  • 46 studies link mindfulness to factors that improve leadership capability
  • 38 studies link mindfulness to factors that improve employee performance
  • 34 studies link mindfulness to factors that impact on change and organisational transformation
  • 33 studies link mindfulness to factors that improve safety in high reliability organisations

A good summary of the state of research to date is included in Mindfulness, Behaviour Change and Decision Making: An Experimental Trial,  Jessica Pykett, Rachel Lilley, Mark Whitehead, Rachel Howell, Rhys Jones (January 2016):

"Research studies in workplaces have primarily emphasised the role of mindfulness programmes on staff wellbeing, mental health and stress-reduction - tackling problems of sickness absence, presentism, high staff turnover, depression and anxiety. Research and commentary has also explored the business role of mindfulness in terms of improving employee performance, resilience and social relationships in the workplace, work engagement and in reducing emotional exhaustion and improving job satisfaction".

In 'Contemplating mindfulness at work: An integrative review. (Good, D.J., Lyddy, C.J., Glomb, T.M., Bono, J.E., Brown, K.W., Duffy, M.K.,& Lazar, S.W. (2016). Journal of Management, 42(1), 114-142.) Mindfulness is linked to workplace outcomes as follows:

The evidence base for mindfulness at work: Performance 

Statistics:

  • In June 2016, 38 workplace context mindfulness research studies linked mindfulness to improved workplace performance
  • Research papers were published between 2005-2015, with 71% of them being published between 2012-15
  • The studies included staff from armed services, call centres, healthcare, high tech, leaders, manufacturing, social work teachers, utility companies

Research linking mindfulness to improved workplace performance includes:

  • Mindfulness widens your attentional breadth    Dane, E. (2010). Paying attention to mindfulness and its effects on task performance in the workplace. Journal of Management 37(4), 997-1018.
  • Mindfulness-based practices in the workplace enhance employee self-regulation of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours, linking them to both performance and employee well-being in the workplace. In addition, mindfulness enhances social relationships in the workplace, making employees more resilient in the face of challenges, and increased decision making and task performance.    Theresa M. Glomb, Michelle K. Duffy, Joyce E. Bono and Tao Yang,(2011): Mindfulness at work. Personnel and Human Resources Management, Volume 30, 115-157
  • Study involving 231 employees concluded that mindfulness is beneficially associated with employee well-being, as measured by emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and psychological need satisfaction, and with job performance, as measured by task performance, organizational citizenship behaviours
     Reb J, Narayanan, J, & Ho ZW, (2013). Mindfulness at Work: Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Awareness and Absent-mindedness. Mindfulness, February 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 111-122


The evidence base for mindfulness at work: Relationships

Statistics:

  • In June 2016,  45 workplace context mindfulness research studies linked mindfulness to improved relationships at work. 
  • The papers were published between 2008-2015, with 71% being published between 2012-15
  • The studies included employees from a wide range of sectors

Mindfulness improves employee relationships: research includes:

  • Persons who practice mindfulness are better able to cope and remain calm in difficult work situations; be more likely to experience work difficulties as challenges than threats; enjoy their work more; be more adaptable at work; and have more positive interpersonal relations at work.     McCormick, Donald W & Hunter J (2008) Mindfulness in the workplace: an exploratory study.
  • Mindfulness may benefit equanimity both outside and inside the workplace. The study suggests that mindful people were less hostile in their behaviours in part because they were less prone to hostile feelings.    Krishnakumar S, Robinson MD (2015) Maintaining An Even Keel: An affect-Mediated Model of Mindfulness and Hostile Work Behaviour
  • Mindfulness influences attention, with downstream effects on functional domains of cognition, emotion, behaviour, and physiology. Ultimately, these domains impact key workplace outcomes, including performance, relationships, and well-being. Good, Lyddy, Glomb, Bono, Brown, Duffy, Baer, Brewer, Lazar (2015) Contemplating Mindfulness at Work: An Integrative Review

Mindfulness improves leadership: research includes:

  • Supervisor mindfulness reduced employee emotional exhaustion and increased employee work-life balance. It improved employee performance and staff engagement. Supervisor mindfulness was positively related to employee job satisfaction and psychological need satisfaction. Furthermore, leader mindfulness was positively related to overall job performance, as well as to in-role performance and organizational citizenship behaviours    Reb J, Narayanan J, & Chaturvedi S, 2012. Leading Mindfully: Two Studies on the Influence of Supervisor Trait Mindfulness on Employee Well-Being and Performance: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012
  • A study involving over 1000 leaders in a range of roles in organisations across New Zealand concluded "The findings of this study attest to the positive impact that mindfulness seems to have in combating a number of dysfunctional outcomes affecting today's leaders.    Roche, M., Haar, J. M., & Luthans, F. (2014) The Role of Mindfulness and Psychological Capital on the Well-Being of Leaders. Journal of Occupational Health
  • Research on healthcare managers found that significant positive changes in leadership were reported by mindfulness retreat participants and that this was confirmed by their colleagues. The aspects of leadership which showed statistically significant improvements were 'leadership effectiveness' and 'balanced processing.' Follow-up interviews were carried out post-intervention which showed significant increases in mindfulness and corresponding decreases in stress that were sustained across eight weeks post-retreat.  Wasylkiw, L. (2015) The impact of mindfulness on leadership effectiveness in a health care setting: a pilot study" Journal of health organization and management Vol 29 (7) pp893 - 911.

The evidence base for mindfulness at work: Well-being

Statistics:

  • In June 2016, 58 workplace context mindfulness research studies linked mindfulness to improvements in employee well-being. 
  • Research was conducted between 2008-2015, with 75% published between  2011-16 75%
  • Employees included in the research include armed forces, bio-tech, call centres, emergency services, healthcare, hotels, insurers, leaders, manufacturing, phamaceuticals, sales, social work, teachers, transport companies, universities

Mindfulness improves well-being: research includes:

  • RCT with Dow Chemicals employees. After mindfulness training Stress decreased, Mindfulness, resilience, work engagement and vigour and employee well-being increased. Key improvements included
    • 30 percent reduction in perceived stress
    • 50 percent decrease in number of high stress episodes
    • 13 percent increase in resiliency
    • 15 percent incroserrease in work engagement and vigour
    • 50 percent decrease in employee burnout
    Aikens, Astin, Pelletier, Levanovich, Baase, Park, Bodnar (2014)  Mindfulness goes to work: impact of an online workplace intervention.
  • Mindfulness leads to improved work engagement and general well-being. It also improves job satisfaction, hope, optimism, resilience. The results indicate that non-reactivity and being non-judgemental are important skills for the workplace
    Peter Malinowski and Hui Jia Lim (2015) Mindfulness at work: Positive affect, hope, and optimism mediate the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, work engagement and Well-being.
  • A study involving Employees in a busy call centre - After mindfulness training client satisfaction increased. Stress anxiety, depression, fatigue and negative affect (low mood) decreased for all employees throughout the intervention   Grégoire, S., Lachance, L., & Taylor, G. (2015) Mindfulness, mental health and emotion regulation among workers.

Mindfulness reduces the risk of burnout: research includes:

  • Research involving 113 Canadian elementary school teachers concluded that  Teachers who participated in mindfulness training showed greater focused attention and working memory capacity, and occupational self-compassion, as well as lower levels of occupational stress and burnout at post-program and follow-up.    Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., & Harrison, J. (2013)  Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: Results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials.
  • "Participating in an abbreviated mindfulness training course adapted for primary care clinicians was associated with reductions in indicators of job burnout, depression, anxiety, and stress. Modified mindfulness training may be a time-efficient tool to help support clinician health and well-being, which may have implications for patient care"   Fortney, Luchterhand, Zakletskaia, Zgierska, Rakel (2013)  Abbreviated Mindfulness Intervention for Job Satisfaction, Quality of Life, and Compassion in Primary Care Clinicians: A Pilot Study
  • A pilot study working with Dutch GPs showed promising results in assisting busy practitioners in reducing stress and burnout using a short course. The study shows that Mindfulness for GPs is feasible and might result in fewer burnout symptoms and increased work engagement and wellbeing.    Verweij, Waumans, Smeijers, Lucassen, Rogier Donders, van der Horst, Speckens (2016) Mindfulness-based stress reduction for GPs: results of a controlled mixed methods pilot study in Dutch primary care

The evidence base for mindfulness at work:  Training format, duration, session length, practice requirement

Statistics:

  • Of the 100 papers published in June 2016, most did not specify the exact format of the mindfulness intervention (MBI) used, making it difficult to compare like with like.  Of those that did state the MBI used, 12 studies used MBSR,  and 6 studies used MBCT
  • 28 studies demonstrated the achievement of desirable workplace outcomes from shortened courses
  • 20 studies demonstrated the achievement of desirable workplace outcomes from courses with shortened durations, and or session lengths
  • 20 studies demonstrated the achievement of desirable workplace outcomes from courses with shortened practice requirements
  • Of the studies that documented the duration of mindfulness courses studied, 18 were 8 week duration: 11 were 4-6 week duration.  The latter demonstrated desirable outcomes from shortened courses.
  • The Duration of teaching sessions in the studies varied from 30 mins (2 studies),  1 hour (3 studies) 1.5 hours (3 studies), 2.5 hours (3 studies) 
  • Daily practice requirements for participants for the duration of the course varied from 10 mins (3 studies) 15 minutes (6 studies), 20 minutes (6 studies) -all produced desirable workplace outcomes, demonstrating that shortened practice requirements can produce similar outcomes to longer practice times.
  • 6 studies demonstrated a direct correlation between practice time and outcomes: in general the more you practice, the better the outcomes
  • 10 studies demonstrated that the impact of mindfulness training continues after the training ends

Gaps in evidence and open questions remaining:

Mindfulness, Behaviour Change and Decision Making: An Experimental Trial (2016) comments that "It is however clear that there are still significant research gaps - particularly in the case of programmes with non-therapeutic goals.

  • There is limited research on the use of mindfulness for workplace learning, decision making, productivity, organizational culture, adaptability, values, behavioural, social and organizational change.
  • There lacks a substantial body of evidence on mindfulness and leadership, creativity, work engagement, job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and employees' cognitive skills.
  • There is a wide range of evidential standards present within existing studies on mindfulness. The activities of control groups are not always thorough, and there is often an over-reliance on self-report questionnaire methods which are not uncontested in field of psychology.
  • Studies often lack independence in terms of funding sources and the private interests of the research teams.
Compounding and/or contradictory variables can make it difficult to discern the actual and potential effects of mindfulness in the workplace."  

 

Open questions remaining include: 

  • How effective are workplace based mindfulness interventions in achieving their aims?
  • What works in workplace based mindfulness interventions and what conditions are required for workplace mindfulness to work?
  • Which delivery models are most effective (and does one size fit all?)
  • How does organisational culture impact on outcomes
  • Is it right to assume that evidence gathered in clinical settings will readily translate to the workplace?
  • Are shortended courses and shortened practices as effective in producing desirable workplace outcomes as longer courses?

Research papers relating to mindfulness at work current June 2016

  • Aikens KA1, Astin J, Pelletier KR, Levanovich K, Baase CM, Park YY, Bodnar CM. (2014) Mindfulness goes to work: impact of an online workplace intervention.
  • Alexandre Heeren & Sandrine Deplus & Virginie Peschard & François Nef &
    Ilios Kotsou & Christophe Dierickx & Laurie Mondillon & Donald J. Robinaugh & Pierre Philippot (2014) Does Change in Self-reported Mindfulness Mediate the Clinical Benefits of Mindfulness Training? A Controlled Study Using the French Translation of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire
  • Amishi P. Jha, Alexandra B. Morrison, Justin Dainer-Best, Suzanne Parker, Nina Rostrup, Elizabeth A. Stanley (2015) Minds "At Attention": Mindfulness Training Curbs Attentional Lapses in Military Cohorts
  • Amy Burton,, Catherine Burgess, Sarah Dean, Gina Z. Koutsopoulou and Siobhan Hugh-Jones (February 2016) How Effective are Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Reducing Stress Among Healthcare Professionals? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • Anna Schenström, Sten Rönnberg, Owe Bodlund (2006) Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Attitude Training for Primary Care Staff: A Pilot Study Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine January 2006 vol. 11 no. 3 144-152
  • Baer et al 2012 Weekly change in mindfulness and perceived stress in a MBSR: Journal of clinical Psychology
  • Bazarko et al (2013). Journal of Workplace Behavioural Health; vol.28, issue 2, pp.107-133. The impact of an innovative mindfulness-based stress reduction program on the health and wellbeing of nurses in a corporate setting
  • Beckman, H. B., Wendland, M., Mooney, C., Krasner, M. S., et al. (2012). The impact of a program in mindful communication on primary care physicians. Academic Medicine, 87(6), 1-5.
  • Bostoket et al (2013) Can finding headspace reduce work stress? Randomised controlled workplace trial of mindfulness app. Psychosomatic Medicine 75 (3) A36-A37
  • Chiesa A1, Calati R, Serretti A. (2011) Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings.
  • Daire O. Cleirigh, John Greaney (2014) Mindfulness and Group Performance: An Exploratory Investigation into the Effects of Brief Mindfulness Intervention on Group Task Performance
  • Dana Dharmakaya Colgan , Michael Christopher, Paul Michael, Helané Wahbeh (2015) The Body Scan and Mindful Breathing Among Veterans with PTSD: Type of Intervention Moderates the Relationship Between Changes in Mindfulness and Post-treatment Depression
  • Dane E, Brummel BJ (2014) Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human Relations
  • Dane, E. (2010).  Paying attention to mindfulness and its effects on task performance in the workplace. Journal of Management 37(4), 997-1018.
  • Darren J. Good ; Christopher J. Lyddy ; Theresa M. Glomb ; Joyce E. Bono ; Kirk Warren Brown ; Michelle K. Duffy ; Ruth A. Baer ; Judson A. Brewer ; Sara W. Lazar (2015) Contemplating Mindfulness at Work: An Integrative Review
  • David A. Schroeder, Elizabeth Stephens, Dharmakaya Colgan, Matthew Hunsinger, Dan Rubin, Michael S. Christopher (2016) A Brief Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Primary Care Physicians A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Davidson, R.J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., et al. (2003) Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564-570
  • Dawn Querstret and Professor Mark Cropley (2014) Online mindfulness intervention reduces fatigue, negative work-related worry
  • Douglas N. Hales, James Kroes, Yuwen Chen, Kyung Woo (David) Kang (2012) The cost of mindfulness: A case study
  • Duchemin, Anne-Marie MD; Steinberg, Beth A. MS, RN; Marks, Donald R. PsyD; Vanover, Kristin MSW; Klatt, Maryanna PhD (2015) A Small Randomized Pilot Study of a Workplace Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Surgical Intensive Care Unit Personnel
  • Elizabeth A. Stanley, John M. Schaldach, Anastasia Kiyonaga and Amishi P. Jha (2011) Mindfulness-based Mind Fitness Training: A Case Study of a High-Stress Predeployment Military Cohort
  • Flook et al (2013) Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout and teaching efficiency. Mind, brain and education 7 (3) 182-195
  • Foureur, M., Besley, K., Burton, G., Yu, N., & Crisp, J. (2013). Enhancing the resilience of nurses and midwives: Pilot of a mindfulness-based program for increased health, sense of coherence and decreased depression, anxiety and stress. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 45, 114-125.
  • Franco et al (2010) Reducing teacher's psychological distress through a mindfulness training programme. The Spanish Journal of psychology 13 (2) 184-189
  • Galantino, M., Baime, M., Maguire, M., Szapary, P. O., & Farrar, J. T. (2005). Association of psychological and physiological measures of stress in health-care professionals during an 8-week mindfulness meditation program: mindfulness in practice. Stress & Health :Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 21, 255-261.
  • Geller, R., Krasner, M., & Korones, D. (2010). Clinician self-care: The applications of mindfulness-based approaches in preventing professional burnout and compassion fatigue. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 39(2), 366.
  • Gold, E., Smith, A., Hopper, I., Herne, D., Tansey, G., & Hulland, C. (2010). Mindfulness-Based stress reduction (MBSR) for primary school teachers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 184-189.
  • Goodman, M. J. & Schorling, J. B. (2012). A mindfulness course decreases burnout and improves well-being among healthcare providers. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 43(2), 119-28.
  • Grégoire, S., Lachance, L., & Taylor, G. (2015). International Journal of Wellbeing:  Mindfulness, mental health and emotion regulation among workers.
  • Hafenbrack, Andrew C., Kinias, Zoe., Barsade Sigal G, 2013 Debiasing the Mind Through Meditation. Mindfulness and the Sunk-Cost Bias
  • Hanne Verweij, Ruth C Waumans, Danique Smeijers, Peter LBJ Lucassen, A Rogier T Donders, Henriëtte E van der Horst, Anne EM Speckens
    1 February 2016 Mindfulness-based stress reduction for GPs: results of a  controlled mixed methods pilot study in Dutch primary care
  • Huang SL, Li RH, Huang FY, Tang FC (2015) The Potential for Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Workplace Mental Health Promotion: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
  • Hülsheger et al  Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 99(6), Nov 2014 The power of presence: The role of mindfulness at work for daily levels and change trajectories of psychological detachment and sleep quality.
  • Hülsheger UR1, Alberts HJ, Feinholdt A, Lang JW. (2012) Benefits of mindfulness at work: the role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction.
  • Jessica Pykett, Rachel Lilley, Mark Whitehead, Rachel Howell, Rhys Jones (January 2016) Mindfulness, Behaviour Change and Decision Making An Experimental Trial
  • Jha AP, Stanley EA, Kiyonaga A, Wong L, Gelfand L (2010) Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience, Emotion, Vol 10(1), 54-64
  • Jochen Reb, Jayanth Narayanan (2013) The Influence of Mindful Attention on Value claiming in Distributive Negotiations: Evidence from Four Laboratory Experiments
  • Kimberly A. Williams, Maria M. Kolar, Bill E. Reger, and John C. Pearson (2001) Evaluation of a Wellness-based Mindfulness Stress Reduction Intervention: A Controlled Trial. American Journal of Health Promotion: July/August 2001, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 422-432.
  • Klatt et al (2009) The effects of low dose Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR_ld) on working adults. Health Education and Behaviour 36 (3) 212 -233
  • Krishnakumar S, Robinson MD (2015) Maintaining An Even Keel: An affect-Mediated Model of Mindfulness and Hostile Work Behaviour (2105)
  • Lau, M., Colley, L., Willett, B., & Lynd, L. (2012). Employee's preferences for access to mindfulness based cognitive therapy to reduce the risk of depressive relapse-A discrete choice experiment. Mindfulness.
  • Leroya, H., Anseel, F., Dimitrov, N. and Selsa, L. (2013) "Mindfulness, authentic functioning, and workengagement: A growth modeling approach" Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol 82 (3), pp238-247.
  • Levey et al 2012 The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation Training on Multitasking in a High-Stress Information Environment
  • Limm, H., Gundel, H., Heinmuller, M., Marten-Mittag, B., Nater, U. M.,
    Siegrist, J., & Angerer, P. (2011). Stress management interventions in the workplace improve stress reactivity: A randomized controlled trial. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 68, 126 -133.
  • Luke Fortney, Charlene Luchterhand, Larissa Zakletskaia, Aleksandra Zgierska, David Rakel (2013) Abbreviated Mindfulness Intervention for Job Satisfaction, Quality of Life, and Compassion in Primary Care Clinicians: A Pilot Study
    ANNALS OF FAMILY MEDICINE VOL. 11, NO. 5
  • Mackenzie et al (2006) A Brief mindfulness based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurses aides. Applied Nursing Research 19 (2) 105 -9
  • Malarkeya, Jarjourab & Klattc (2013)
    Workplace based mindfulness practice and inflammation: A randomized trial
  • Malinowski, P. & Lim, H. J. (2015) Mindfulness at work: Positive affect, hope,and optimism mediate the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, work engagement and well-being
  • Manotas et al 2014 Association of brief mindfulness training with reductions in perceived stress and distress in Colombian health care professionals.
  • Marieke K. van Vugt, Amishi P. Jha (2011) Investigating the impact of mindfulness meditation training on working memory: A mathematical modelling approach
  • Maurizio Zollo et al INSEAD (2007) Understanding Corporate Responsibility: An Executive Briefing Results and Insights from Project RESPONSE
  • McCormick, Donald W & Hunter J (2008) Mindfulness in the workplace: an exploratory study.
  • McGarrigle and Walsh (2011) Mindfulness, self-care, and wellness in social work: effects of contemplative training. Journal of Religion and spirituality in Social work: social thought 30(3) 212-233
  • Mental Health Foundation (2010). Mindfulness Report (London: Mental Health Foundation)
  • Michael D. Mrazek, Michael S. Franklin,Dawa Tarchin
    Phillips, Benjamin Baird, and Jonathan W. (2013) Mindfulness Training Improves Working Memory Capacity and GRE Performance While Reducing Mind Wandering: Schooler University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Michel A et al (2014). Mindfulness as a cognitive-emotional segmentation strategy: an intervention promoting work-life balance
  • Mindfulness All party parliamentary Group (MAPPG)
    October 2015 Mindful Nation Uk: Report by the Mindfulness All-Party Parliamentary Group (MAPPG)
  • Natalia Karelaia and Jochen Reb (2014) Improving Decision Making through Mindfulness
  • Nicole de Zoysa, Florian A. Ruths, James Walsh, Jane Hutton (2012) Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Mental Health Professionals: a Long-Term Quantitative Follow-up Study
  • Ostafin, B.D. and Kassman, K.T. (2012) "Stepping out of history: Mindfulness improves insight problem solving" Consciousness and Cognition Vol. 21 (2), pp1031-1036.'
  • Patrick K. Hyland, R. Andrew Lee, and Maura J. Mills (2015) Mindfulness at Work: A New Approach to Improving Individual and Organizational Performance
  • Peter Malinowski and Hui Jia Lim (2015) Mindfulness at work: Positive affect, hope, and optimism mediate the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, work engagement and Well-being.
  • Poulin et al (2008) Mindfulness training as an evidence based approach to reducing stress and promoting well-being among human services professionals. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 46 (2) 35-43
  • Reb J, Narayanan J, & Chaturvedi S, 2012. Leading Mindfully: Two Studies on the Influence of Supervisor Trait Mindfulness on Employee Well-Being and Performance: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012
  • Reb J, Narayanan, J, & Ho ZW, (2013). Mindfulness at Work: Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Awareness and Absent-mindedness. Mindfulness, February 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 111-122
  • Rees, Bronwen (2013) Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Foundation Trust Mindfulness Pilot
  • Roche, M., Haar, J. M., & Luthans, F. (2014, June 16) The Role of Mindfulness and Psychological Capital on the Well-Being of Leaders. Journal of Occupational Health
  • Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., & Harrison, J. (2013) Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: Results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 787-804.
  • Ruedy, N. E., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2010) In the moment: The effect of mindfulness on ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 2010(95), 73-87.
  • Schenstrom et al (2006) Mindfulness based cognitive attitude training for primary care staff: A pilot study. Complimentary Health Practice Review 11 (3) 144 - 152
    Shapiro et al (2005) Mindfulness based stress reduction for health care professionals: Results from a randomized trial. International Journal of Stress Management 12 (2) 164-176
  • Shonin, E.S., Van Gordon, W., Dunn, T., Singh, N. & Griffiths, M.D. (2014). Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for work-related wellbeing and job performance: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 806-823
  • Simon Gregoire and Lisa Lachance (2014) Evaluation of a brief mindfulness based intervention to reduce psychological distress in the workplace
  • Smith et al (2011) Mindfulness is associated with fewer PTSD symptoms... In urban fire-fighters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79(5) 613-617
  • Stanley and Jha (2009) Mind fitness: Improving operational effectiveness and building warrior resilience. Joint Force Quarterly, 55, 144-151.
  • Tammy D. Allen, Kaitlin M. Kiburz (2011) Trait mindfulness and work-family balance among working parents: The mediating effects of vitality and sleep quality
  • Theresa M. Glomb, Michelle K. Duffy, Joyce E. Bono and Tao Yang,(2011): Mindfulness at work. Personnel and Human Resources Management, Volume 30, 115-157
  • Timothy J Vogus and Theresa m Welbourne (2003) Structuring for high reliability: HR practices and mindful processes in reliability-seeking organizations
    Journal of Organizational Behavior J. Organiz. Behav. 24, 877-903 (2003)
  • Ute R. Hülsheger, Alina Feinholdt and Annika Nübold (2015) A low-dose mindfulness intervention and recovery from work: effects on psychological detachment, sleep quality and sleep duration
  • VICH, M (2015) The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Research in the Workplace and its Challenges. Central European Business Review, North America, 4, sep. 2015.
  • Virgili M (2013) Mindfulness-based interventions reduce psychological distress in working adults: a meta-analysis of intervention studies
  • Walach, H., Nord, E., Zier, C., Dietz-Waschkowski, B., Kersig, S., and Schu, H. (2007) Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction as a Method for Personnel Development: A Pilot Evaluation. American Psychological Association, 14 (2)188-198.
  • Wasylkiw, L. (2015) The impact of mindfulness on leadership effectiveness in a health care setting: a pilot study" Journal of health organization and management Vol 29 (7) pp893 - 911.
  • Wolever RQ, Bobinet KJ, et al. (2012) Effective and viable mind-body stress reduction in the workplace: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 2012 Apr;17(2):246-58.
  • Zeidan, F., Johnson, S.K., Diamond, B.J., David, Z., and Goolkasian, P. (2010) Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training
    Consciousness and Cognition, Vol 19 (2), pp597-605
  • Zhang J, Ding W, Li Y, & Wu C (2013) Task complexity matters: The influence of trait mindfulness on task and safety performance of nuclear power plant operators. Personality and Individual Differences 55, 433-439
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